Urine test is the most common test in the process of detecting and curing any disease. This website is first of its own kind to give you complete information on urine test. It compiles all such information which you would never get anywhere in one place. It is like an encyclopedia of urine test. Keep reading and keep visiting to know anything of everything of urine test.
Urine test or urinalysis (UA) is a generally accepted test to check the proper functioning of the kidneys and certain other organs, along with diagnosing wide range of diseases. It gives a complete picture of ones health and the problems, if there is any.
When one needs to do a urine test?
Urine test is required for the treatment of diseases. The test is useful in finding out the disease or it helps in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. It also assists in finding out whether a woman is pregnant or ovulating.
Apart from diseases and pregnancy, urine test is widely used in professional sport and rehabilitation programmes for testing variety of substances that is related to drug abuse. For a quick test of urine, a strip made of special paper is used. Immediately after the urination this strip is dipped to find out the presence of abnormal products like protein, sugar or blood in the urine. To get more details of the urine test, if required, the urine sample is send to the labs for analysis.
What is the process of doing urine test?
If a case of cystitis, the infections in the bladder, is suspected by the doctor then urine test is done to find out the type of bacteria and to know which antibiotics will best be used to treat the infection.
Urine easily gets contaminated with the bacteria present on the skin or on the genitals. Hence, it is suggested for both men and women to clean the genitals area properly before collecting the sample ready for test in the lab.
Those who don’t find difficulty in urinating on demand are suggested to first urinate in the toilet and only after that into the specimen container, the remaining in the toilet again. This is called midstream specimen.
Double-voided sample is the method of collecting that urine sample which a body makes just before the time of urinating. To collect this one needs to first urinate fully into the toilet. After doing this, drink one or two glasses of water and wait for 30-40 minutes. After the wait, collect the urine sample in the container. Take this sample to the lap within an hour. If it is not possible to get it there in one hour, then refrigerate it.
What actually is revealed from urine test?
Urine test is in fact the cheap and simple way to get different information related to diseases. It helps in discovering the diseases easily of different organs of our body. Sometimes it is also considered along with blood tests or stool tests.
The information that urine test provides are as mentioned below:
- If blood is found in the urine then it is considered as a sign of kidneys diseases, urinary system diseases or the one in the bladder.
- If there is a sugar substance in the urine then it is a sign of diabetes.
- If protein substance is found in the urine, it is a sign of kidney diseases and with the amount of protein early signs of kidney damage can be detected.
- The biochemical analysis of urine helps in the diagnosis process of Kidney stones, porphyria and myeloma.
- Diagnosis of bladder cancer and also its treatment is assisted through urine test. Cytology, the cells, that are shed from the lining of bladder are found in the urine after the analysis of the sample is done through microscope.
Test Results of Urine in Detail
- Color – In normal condition the color of the urine is pale to dark yellow. If the urine has no color then it may be due to uncontrolled diabetes or kidney disease, that too long-term. If it is dark yellow then it is due to dehydration. The red color in the urine is due to blood mixed in the urine.
- Clarity – In normal condition it is clear, but if it is cloudy then it is due to pus, blood, sperm, yeast, bacteria, crystals, parasite infection or mucus.
- Odor – The urine gives “nutty” odor normally. Uncontrolled diabetes gives sweet, fruity odor to the urine. If it is a bad odor then it is due to urinary tract infection (UTI). The maple syrup like smell in the urine is a sign to maple syrup urine disease. This happens when the body is unable to break down some amino acids.
- Specific gravity – In normal condition the specific gravity is 1.005-1.030. Above this means drinking less fluid or loss of it due to vomiting, sweating or diarrhea. It may also be due to sugar, protein or some other substances in the urine. Lesser specific gravity of the urine means severe kidney disease or else due to use of diuretics. It may also be due to drinking too much of fluid.
- pH – Normally the pH value is 4.6-8.0 in the urine, but some fruits or medicines affects the pH of urine. High pH is due to vomiting, urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and also because of asthma. Low pH is due to lung disease, aspirin overdose, uncontrolled diabetes, diarrhea, starvation, dehydration, drinking antifreeze or too much of alcohol.
- Protein – Usually there is no protein found in urine, but its presence may give a sign to kidney damage, cancer, infection, high blood pressure, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes or else due to presence of glomerulonephritis. It may also be a sign of heart failure, poison in the body, leukemia. In pregnancy case it may be due to preeclampsia.
- Glucose – Normally there are glucose found in urine, but its presence may give a sign to uncontrolled diabetes, liver damage, adrenal gland problem, brain injury, poison in the body or some kidney diseases. In pregnancy case a healthy woman can have glucose in her urine.
- Ketones – In normal urine no ketones are found. Presence of ketones means uncontrolled diabetes, starvation, low-carbohydrate diet, eating disorders or poisoning due to rubbing alcohol. Ketones are also found when a person is on fast, or he is sick and did not eat or vomit for days. In pregnancy case a low level of ketones are present.
- If the urine contains red blood cells then it may be due to kidney or bladder injury, urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney stones, inflammation of kidneys, tumor in kidney or bladder or due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The white blood cells in the urine is due to tract infection, tumor in bladder, SLE, inflammation of the kidneys, in the vagina or under foreskin of penis.
- Casts in the urine means damage to the tiny tubes inside the kidneys, metal poisoning, bacteria infection, heart failure or even due to poor blood supply to the kidneys.
- Presence of large crystals in the urine means stones in the kidney or even a sign of damaged kidneys. It may be due to problems with the metabolism also. Sometimes certain medicines of certain urinary tract infections may also show increase number of crystals.
- If bacteria are found in the urine then it is a case of UTI.
- If squamous cells are present in the urine, it means the sample is not pure. Another urine sample is necessary in this case.
It is suggested to follow the directions of your doctor properly in urine test because the medication depends on the result of the test. Be very punctual in reaching the lab with the urine sample and always be careful to take the pure sample of urine.